This chapter describes how Oracle Transfer Pricing translates interest rates from their initial formats into formats that can be used by the application. Interest rates are available in a variety of formats. In Oracle Transfer Pricing, interest rates are used for multiple purposes, each requiring a specific rate format. The application must apply transformation formulas to translate the interest rates from their initial formats into formats that can be used by Oracle Transfer Pricing. Discount factor is used only internally and cannot be specified as an input rate format in Oracle Transfer Pricing.

## CD Calculator

At the end of this section, students should be able to meet the following objectives:. A wide array of bonds and other types of financial instruments can be purchased from parties seeking money. A zero-coupon bond is one that is popular because of its ease. The face value of a zero-coupon bond is paid to the investor after a specified period of time but no other cash payment is made. There is no stated cash interest. Money is received when the bond is issued and money is paid at the end of the term but no other payments are ever made.

Why does any investor choose to purchase a zero-coupon bond if no interest is paid? No investor would buy a note or bond that did not pay interest. That makes no economic sense. Because zero-coupon bonds are widely issued, some form of interest must be included. These bonds are sold at a discount below face value with the difference serving as interest. That is the charge paid for the use of the money that was borrowed. The price reduction below face value can be so significant that zero-coupon bonds are sometimes referred to as deep discount bonds.

According to the contract, no other cash is to be paid. An investor who wishes to make a 7 percent annual interest rate can mathematically compute the amount to pay to earn exactly that interest. The debtor must then decide whether to accept this offer. Often, the final exchange price for a bond is the result of a serious negotiation process to determine the interest rate to be earned. As an example, the potential investor might offer an amount that equates to interest at an annual rate of 7 percent.

The debtor could then counter by suggesting 5 percent with the two parties finally settling on a price that provides an annual interest rate of 6 percent. In the bond market, interest rates are the subject of intense negotiations. After the effective rate also called the yield or negotiated rate has been established by the parties, the actual price of the bond is simply a mathematical computation.

According to the indenture, it comes due in exactly two years. The parties have negotiated an annual interest rate to be earned of 6 percent. How is the price to be paid for a bond determined after an effective rate of interest has been established? Determination of the price of a bond is a present value computation in the same manner as that demonstrated previously in the coverage of intangible assets. The parties have negotiated an annual 6 percent effective interest rate. In a present value computation, total interest at the designated rate is calculated and subtracted to leave the present value amount.

That is the price of the bond, often referred to as the principal. Interest is computed at 6 percent for two years and removed. The remainder is the amount paid for the bond. This can be found by table, by formula, or by use of an Excel spreadsheet 1. Bond prices are often stated as a percentage of face value. The price is the future cash payments with the negotiated rate of interest removed.

The issuance is recorded through the following entry 2. Figure Link to multiple-choice question for practice purposes: As shown in the above journal entry, the bond is initially recorded at this principal amount. Subsequently, two problems must be addressed by the accountant. The additional payment is the cost of the debt, the interest.

To arrive at fairly presented figures, these two problems must be resolved. How is a zero-coupon bond reported in the period after its issuance? It solves both of the accounting problems mentioned here. The debt balance is raised gradually to the face value and interest of 6 percent is reported each year over the entire period. However, no payment is made. Thus, this interest is compounded—added to the principal. Interest that is recognized but not paid at that time must be compounded.

The balances to be reported in the financial statements at the end of Year One are as follows:. The principal is higher in this second year because of the compounding addition of the first year interest. If the principal increases, subsequent interest must also go up. That was exactly 6 percent of the principal in each of the two years.

Total interest reported for this zero-coupon bond is equal to the difference between the amount received by the debtor and the face value repaid. Both of the accounting problems have been resolved through use of the effective rate method. If interest is then recognized each period based on this same set of variables, the resulting numbers will reconcile. This bond was sold at the present value of its future cash flows based on a rate of interest negotiated by the parties involved.

Interest was then recognized periodically by applying the effective rate method. Is the effective rate method the only acceptable technique that can be used to compute and report interest when the face value of a debt differs from its issue price? Interest can also be calculated for reporting purposes by a simpler approach known as the straight-line method. Using this technique, an equal amount of the discount is assigned to interest each period over the life of the bond.

Payment will be made in two years. However, a question should be raised as to whether the information reported under this method is a fairly presented portrait of the events that took place. Although the bond was sold to earn 6 percent annual interest, this rate is not reported for either period. Year One: Year Two: In reality, the parties established an annual rate of 6 percent for the entire two-year period.

When applying the straight-line method, this actual rate is not shown for either year. Furthermore, the reported interest rate appears to float 6. That did not happen; there was a single 6 percent interest rate agreed-upon by the debtor and the creditor. The straight-line method does not reflect the reality of the transaction. However, it can still be applied according to U. GAAP but only if the reported results are not materially different from those derived using the effective rate method.

Zero-coupon bonds pay no cash interest. They are sold at a discount to provide interest to the buyer. The price of the bond is determined by computing the present value of the required cash flows using the effective interest rate negotiated by the two parties. Present value represents the principal of the debt with all future interest mathematically removed.

The bond is recorded at this principal. Interest is subsequently determined each period based on the effective rate. Because no cash interest is paid, the entire amount recognized as interest must be compounded added to the principal. The straight-line method can also be used to record interest if the resulting numbers are not materially different from the effective rate method. Here, i is 0. Present value can also be determined using an Excel spreadsheet.

The discount serves as a contra account to reduce the net liability balance to its principal amount. The contra account is reduced so the net liability balance increases. Thus, overall reporting of the interest and the liability is not impacted by the method used in recording the issuance of the bond. Skip to content Increase Font Size. Learning Objectives At the end of this section, students should be able to meet the following objectives: Identify the characteristics of a zero-coupon bond.

Explain how interest is earned on a zero-coupon bond. Understand the method of arriving at an effective interest rate for a bond. Calculate the price of a zero-coupon bond and list the variables that affect this computation. Prepare journal entries for a zero-coupon bond using the effective rate method. Exercise Link to multiple-choice question for practice purposes: Key Takeaway Zero-coupon bonds pay no cash interest.

## Rate Conversion

Table of Contents Chapter 1: Categories of Bonds Chapter 2: Pricing of Bonds Chapter 3: Duration of Bonds Chapter 5:

Yankee bonds Bonds denominated in U. Yankee CDs Certificates of deposit denominated in U.

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### Zero-Coupon Certificate Of Deposit (CD)

A zero coupon bond, sometimes referred to as a pure discount bond or simply discount bond, is a bond that does not pay coupon payments and instead pays one lump sum at maturity. The amount paid at maturity is called the face value. The term discount bond is used to reference how it is sold originally at a discount from its face value instead of standard pricing with periodic dividend payments as seen otherwise. To find the zero coupon bond s value at its original price, the yield would be used in the formula. After the zero coupon bond is issued, the value may fluctuate as the current interest rates of the market may change.

### Zero Coupon Bond Value

Generally, the issuer sets the price and the yield of the bond so that it will sell enough bonds to supply the amount that it desires. The higher the credit rating of the issuer, the lower the yield that it must offer to sell its bonds. A change in the credit rating of the issuer will affect the price of its bonds in the secondary market: The other factors that determine the price of a bond have a more complex interaction. When a bond is first issued, it is generally sold at par , which is the face value of the bond. The par value is the principal, which is received at the end of the bond s term, i. Sometimes when the demand is higher or lower than an issuer expected, the bonds might sell higher or lower than par. In the secondary market, bond prices are almost always different from par, because interest rates change continuously. When a bond trades for more than par, then it is selling at a premium , which will pay a lower yield than its stated coupon rate, and when it is selling for less, it is selling at a discount , paying a higher yield than its coupon rate. When interest rates rise, bond prices decline, and vice versa.

### The yield to maturity and bond equivalent yield

At the end of this section, students should be able to meet the following objectives:. A wide array of bonds and other types of financial instruments can be purchased from parties seeking money. A zero-coupon bond is one that is popular because of its ease. The face value of a zero-coupon bond is paid to the investor after a specified period of time but no other cash payment is made. There is no stated cash interest. Money is received when the bond is issued and money is paid at the end of the term but no other payments are ever made.

## Bond Yield to Maturity Calculator

Product Description. Sample Report. OID Tutorial. Contact Us. Site Map. Original Issue Discount Tutorial. The following is an overview of the economics and tax considerations regarding Original Issue Discount. Relevant tax code sections are through Accrual Periods and Adjusted Issue Prices.

### Pricing of Bonds

Included are considerations for tax and inflation for more accurate results. Related Investment Calculator Interest Calculator. A certificate of deposit is an agreement to deposit money for a fixed period that will pay interest. Common term lengths range from three months to five years. The lengthier the term, the higher the exposure to interest rate risk. Generally, the larger the initial deposit, or the longer the investment period, the higher the interest rate. As a type of investment, CDs fall on the low-risk, low-return end of the spectrum. Historically, interest rates of CDs tend to be higher than rates of savings accounts and money markets, but lower than the historical average return rate of equities.

Are you wondering what the future value of a certificate of deposit will be? First use the rates menu to see current rates on offer.

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Certificates of deposit are investments offered by banks and brokerage firms in which the investor commits to leaving money in the certificate of deposit for a specified period of time in return for giving the investor a guaranteed rate of return. This interest rate is usually higher than other bank accounts, because the bank can count on the money remaining in the account for the duration of the certificate of deposit and therefore invest it in longer-term investments that yield a higher rate of return. If the money is withdrawn early, the investor will have to pay a severe penalty, often several months worth of interest. A coupon is the stated rate of interest on the certificate of deposit. The term comes from bonds that have coupons that must be torn off the original bond and redeemed to be paid the interest due. The interest rate specified by the coupon is paid at set intervals. Zero coupon certificates of deposit are those that do not have any interest payments on the account until the maturity date.

The full text of this article hosted at iucr. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, Please log in. If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube. Log out of Readcube. Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. Bond spreads are used to determine relative value in bonds that are not credit risk free. This relative value is a measure of the risk premium return implied in the bond yield. To calculate bond spread, we may use one of four different measures, which are described and illustrated in this chapter. Investors can also determine relative value in the cash market by comparing its yield spread with that observed in the synthetic market, which is represented by the credit default swap premium payable for the same reference name.

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